Random Facts about Paper – Infographics
Random Facts about Paper – Infographics
Printing properties of paper result from complex interactions between printing ink, printing process, and paper. Practice-oriented printability tests must be performed to evaluate these properties. Test printers are also suitable for this purpose. Instruments for offset printing, gravure printing, and flexographic printing can be used with standard printing inks under laboratory conditions to test the dry pick resistance or the wet pick resistance of papers. Missing dots, mottling and ink penetration properties can also be tested. Conversely, the behavior of various printing inks towards standard papers can also be evaluated.
Using an image analyzer for testing printed image and the printing process has increased during the last decade. This is due to the improved capability of the analyzers and because the importance of the quality of the printed image has increased. The image analyzer and its use in paper testing has already been mentioned earlier in connection with paper tests. The image analyzer is used to measure the uniformity of paper (print mottle, number of missing dots, and properties of dot), surface properties of paper (fiber rising, picking, and contact angle measurement), and many other properties of paper, i. e., width of cracking on the fold.
Furthermore, defined proof copies produced with the test printers can be used to test full ink coverage, color density, color glosses, shade, abrasion resistance, stacking ability, and contact yellowing.
More reliable results obviously come from tests that closely simulate the actual printing process. That is why tests developed for full-scale printing machines give the best predictions of the actual printability properties of a paper.
The behavior of liquids towards paper is characterized by the processes of wetting and penetration. In both cases, the characteristic physical property is the surface tension. This value can be measured directly and tensiometrically in the case of liquids and indirectly, via the contact angle of test liquid droplets, in the case of solids such as paper. A liquid wets the surface of the paper only if its surface tension is lower than that of the paper. The same holds for the wetting of the capillary walls upon penetration of liquids into the capillaries of the paper.
If the wetting and the penetrating capacity of liquids are to be changed, the surface tension of the paper must also be changed. This is achieved, for instance, by sizing the paper, a process which must fulfill the requirements regarding printability with aqueous inks. According to DIN 53 126 (2001), the paper is considered to be printable if a standard ink line drawn with an adjusted drawing pen has neither run nor penetrated into the paper after 24 h.
The water absorption WA (Cobb) refers to the amount of water that is absorbed by a certain area of paper on one-sided contact for a specified exposure time. The time of exposure to water must be chosen such that a sufficient amount of water enters into the fiber matrix, but does not penetrate to the opposite side of the sample. In the determination of grease permeability, red-colored palm kernel oil is used as the testing agent. The passage of fat through the sample under specified conditions is then evaluated.
The main reason of coating is to improve the surface quality of paper or board. The excellence improvement can be aimed at optical properties such as brightness, gloss or opacity, at tactile property such as smoothness, but, most importantly, at print-ability and print image value.
The application of (usually white) pigments to the base paper surface enhances the brightness of the paper. In addition, the opacity increases due to the high light scattering of the pigments. This improves the optical appearance, because the shine through of the back side printing is reduced. Also, the coat layer evens out the surface landscape of the sheet, resulting in an improved smoothness, which in turn gives a better gloss.
The coat layer reduces the diffusion of ink into the paper sheet. Therefore, the ink does not spread as much and the print image is clear and sharp. The print density and the print gloss are enhanced, and the ink insists is reduced compared to uncoated papers.For specialty papers, the coat layer can have functional properties. Examples are the thermo sensitive layer of thermal papers or the capsule containing coat layer of carbonless papers.
The benefits of applying a coating layer become very apparent when comparing paper surfaces with different coatings. The SEM (scanning electron microscope) micrograph of an 80 gsm wood free base paper shows multiple layers of intersecting fibers. The paper surface is characterized by hills and dales formed by the fiber mesh. The voids between the fibers impair the smoothness and uniformity of the paper surface. The next micrograph shows a percolated paper at the same magnification for comparison.
A pre-coating of just 10 gsm per side suffices to cover up the majority of voids and fiber crossings. This helps to smooth and even out the paper surface. Paper surface quality can be further enhanced by the application of a top coat. Coating the paper with another 12 g m–2 per side distinctly enhances the existing pre-coated surface quality, with a number of dominants fiber structures and valleys still remaining visible. Subsequent calendaring achieves an additional quality gain by enhancing smoothness and gloss. The resulting surface is flat, with a minimum of irregularities. An electron microscope picture of a microtome cut from a coated paper sample. In the center of the sheet, the fibers can be seen. The lighter and more densely packed structure on the outside of the paper sheet is the pigments of the coat layers.
The caliper of the coat layer varies according to the changing thickness of the base sheet. The surface is smooth so, by coating, paper and board can be upgraded to a higher quality level with added value.
Paper manufacturers and paper suppliers are the administrators behind present quality paper that is made available to buyers. They arrange the processes and makes sure that the paper gets made, is brought into a usable state and gets deployed and distributed among all those who would require it. Paper manufacturers and paper suppliers have a large say in the way paper is manufactured and deployed all over. Without them, the entire process cannot be completed and will be a big work out in futility.
Paper manufacturers as the words suggest, takes charge of the manufacturing procedure. They oversee all the manufacturing operational work that is concerned. They are involved from the start when the trees are rooted out to warehouse and atthe end where the pulp is made into papers in sheets or in rolls. There are many steps involved from the start to the end and the manufacturers have to make sure that every process is running smoothly to produce the right kind of papers in the end.
After the manufacturing process, the supplier comes into play. The suppliers’ feedbacks monthly will be the deciding factor for the manufacturers to decide how much they will produce the next month. The suppliers will then ship in the papers after it has been produced. The papers comes in varied forms to suit different users – printers, packaging companies, retail shops, offices, schools, and government sectors.
For the larger sized papers required by printers and packaging companies, the papers will either come in large sheets or in rolls. The papers that comes in rolls are usually required by customers who needs the paper in a customized size. The paper in rolls will then be converted by a paper convertor to the customized size. This process is also known as converting/sheeting.
Without the paper manufacturers and suppliers, the end users will have difficulties purchasing papers. With the increase need of more knowledge by the general public and with more children pursuing their studies, paper demand will never cease.
You have most likely heard about white papers if you work in a technology-intensive industry. But these advertising powerhouses shouldn’t be ignored in other industries as well. No matter what you’re advertising or promotion, if you need to sell or promote it to high level executives or it’s a very high ticket item, white papers can be a highly effective marketing tool.
Let’s take a look at some of the fundamentals about white papers for those who arenot as familiar with them and how they might help your business.
A white paper is a type of report frequently used to market a product or service to executive-level buyers. Since these kinds of buyers might need to make a case for the purchase to a board or a supervisor who has the concluding say, a report makes the most sense. It lays out all of the information people would need to make an educated purchasing decision without spending the whole report on a hard trade approach.
White papers are helpful since they focus on education and problem solving. The basic idea is this: you identify a problem your target market has, you present them with a general solution or strategy and educate readers about that resolution, and then you close the white paper with a more precise pitch for your own company’s product or service as the solution to their needs.
While white papers are best known as technology marketing tools, you can use them to market just about everything. For example, you could use a white paper to sell your Internet marketing consulting services or just about any product targeting B2B customers. So go ahead. Search your competitors’ sites to look for examples of industry-specific white papers in action, and then give white paper writing a try.
What is Watercolor Paper?
Watercolor paper is paper which is designed for the watercolor standard. It is specially made to absorb watercolor, so that the paint will not lose patients together on the paper.Watercolor papers arrive in different surfaces and weights.
Variety of Watercolor Paper?
Machine-made watercolor papers appear in three surfaces: rough, hot-pressed or HP, and cold-pressed.
Rough watercolor paper has a famous tooth, or textured surface. This creates a grainy result as pools of water assemble in the indentations in the paper.
Hot-pressed watercolor paper has a fine-grained, flat surface, with almost no tooth. Paint dries extremely quickly on it. This makes it ideal for big, even washes of color.
Cold-pressed watercolor paper has animprecisely textured surface, somewhere in between bumpy and hot-pressed paper. It’s the paper used mainly often by watercolor artists.
Watercolor paper differs from producer to manufacturer, so experiment not only with the dissimilar kinds of paper but also with a variety of brands of paper.The thickness of watercolor paper is indicated by its weight, calculated either in grams per square meter (gsm).The usual machine weights are 190 gsm, 300 gsm, 356 gsm, and 638 gsm. Paper less than 356 gsm shouldextend before use; otherwise it’s probable to warp.
Increasingly, artists are looking for new alternative as well as new ways to present their art. One new material that is getting popular is YUPO paper. Yupo paper is made of polypropylene. The exterior is strong, waterproof and stain resistant. Unlike distinct traditional watercolor paper, Yupo doesnot need to be stretched, and does not buckle even with large amounts of water.
Yupo is a compelling and exclusive alternative to usual art papers. Watercolor professionals have initiate Yupo to be receptive to a range of aqueous techniques, but it is also perfect for offset printing, silkscreen, debossing, drawing, acrylic painting, oil painting and many others.
Waterproof paper, like the word itself, is waterproof. It is designed to repel and stay undamaged by water.When used in combination with waterproof ink, waterproof paper should in fact be able to survive direct exposure to water without the paper or its contents being altered in any way. Various papers are made exclusively to be waterproof; paper that is not designed to be waterproof can be put through lamination to make it waterproof or at most water resistant. This type of paper is usually used for purposes such as packaging; Waterproof paper is suitable for maps and guidebooks, as many persons use these items outdoors when situation can often be wet and unforeseeable.
There are different ways to make paper waterproof, some by technology, some by coatings and others from synthetic materials (YUPO Synthetic Paper). Some waterproof papers are complete with thick, tightly-bound fibers that avert water from saturating the paper. Such fibers prevent the paper from deteriorating, dissolving, or changing form. Sometimes, coatings of a variety of forms are used to make paper waterproof. Paper can be coated with synthetic materials, such as plastics, which repel water and avert the paper from being spoiled.
Waterproof packaging paper is important, as packages often enclose objects which are susceptible to water harm. Most packages that need to be shipped from one position to another are ready out of thick, layered materials, such as cardboard, which can keep away or absorb a great amount of water but still remain useful. A few packages are wrapped and shipped with glossy materials, alike to the coatings placed on some paper that keep away water. It is also vital that labels worn for packaging are printed on waterproof paper. If they were not printed on waterproof paper, they could be cracked or otherwise rendered unreadable if bare to water.
Waterproof paper is also usually used by folks who need to use paper outdoors. Backpackers and hikers use maps to discover where they are going; the maps need to live some amount of moisture. People in the military also value the durability of waterproof paper, as it can be used in many dissimilar environments. Maps and vital communications can be sent on paper without risk of behind damage because of rain or other sources of moisture. Public who work on boats or near bodies of water also use waterproof paper to decrease the risk of harm from splashing or submersion.